Ultrafast current imaging by Bayesian inversion

Schematic for I–V measurements in contact-mode AFM


Suhas Somnath, Kody JH Law, AN Morozovska, Petro Maksymovych, Yunseok Kim, Xiaoli Lu, Marin Alexe, R Archibald, Sergei V Kalinin, Stephen Jesse, Rama K Vasudevan, "Ultrafast current imaging by Bayesian inversion", Nature communications, 9(1), 2018


Spectroscopic measurements of current–voltage curves in scanning probe microscopy is the earliest and one of the most common methods for characterizing local energy-dependent electronic properties, providing insight into superconductive, semiconductor, and memristive behaviors. However, the quasistatic nature of these measurements renders them extremely slow. Here, we demonstrate a fundamentally new approach for dynamic spectroscopic current imaging via full information capture and Bayesian inference. This general-mode IVmethod allows three orders of magnitude faster measurement rates than presently possible. The technique is demonstrated by acquiring IV curves in ferroelectric nanocapacitors, yielding >100,000 IV curves in <20 min. This allows detection of switching currents in the nanoscale capacitors, as well as determination of the dielectric constant. These experiments show the potential for the use of full information capture and Bayesian inference toward extracting physics from rapid IVmeasurements, and can be used for transport measurements in both atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy.

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